Building Codes and Occupancy Groups


(ايهم) #1

السلام عليكم ورحمة الله وبركاته…
موضوع يبين أولى خطوات التصميم… الموضوع طويل نوعا ما, بس بعض الاشخاص عندهم ميزة حب القراءة ولو كان الموضوع طويل… الموضوع تجميع لمعلومات من هنا وهناك مع وجود روابط للمصادر اذا كانت من الانترنت أو اسم الكتاب والصفحة ان كانت المعلومة مقتطفة من كتاب… أتمنى عموم الفائدة للجميع وبانتظار تعليقاتكم ومساهماتكم لاثراء الموضوع… وانتظرونا في مواضيع جديدة في القريب العاجل باذن الله تعالى… اعتذر مرة ثانية على طول الموضوع.

Building Codes and Occupancy Groups

what is a building code?

A building code is a document containing standardized requirements for the design and construction of most types of buildings.

Codes regulate building construction and building use in order to protect the health, safety and welfare of the occupants. Codes address all aspects of construction including structural integrity, fire resistance, safe exits, lighting, electrical, energy conservation, plumbing, sanitary facilities, ventilation, seismic design and correct use of construction materials.

Building codes classify structures by use and apply different standards to each classification. For example, schools and office buildings are in separate occupancy categories with different performance requirements.

http://www.cusec.org/Library/cusec/Phamplet/buildingcodes.pdf

Some codes are general and cover all construction aspects, while other codes focus on a certain construction aspect; i.e. plumbing, electrical, etc. Building codes differ from one region to another; codes for a cold climate region might not be valid and applicable for a hot climate region. These codes have to be adopted locally (or regionally) to be legal and valid.

International Building Code: The International Building Code addresses design and installation of building systems with requirements that emphasize performance. The IBC is coordinated with all the International Codes. Structural and fire- and life-safety provisions covering seismic, wind, accessibility, egress, occupancy, roofs, and more! (Used in the United States).

International Energy Conservation Code: The International Energy Conservation Code covers energy efficiency provisions for residential and commercial buildings, prescriptive- and performance-based approaches to energy-efficient design, and building envelope requirements for thermal performance and air leakage.

International Fire Code: The International Fire Code coordinated with the International Building Code references national standards to comprehensively address fire safety in new and existing buildings. Topics addressed include fire department access, fire hydrants, automatic sprinkler systems, fire alarm systems, hazardous materials storage and use, and fire-safety requirements for new and existing buildings and premises.

International Mechanical Code: The International Mechanical Code comprehensively regulates mechanical systems and equipment including HVAC, exhaust systems, chimneys and vents, ducts, appliances, boilers, water heaters, refrigeration, hydronic piping and solar systems.

International Plumbing Code: The International Plumbing Code addresses minimum provisions for fixtures piping, fittings and devices as well as design and installation methods for water supply, sanitary drainage and storm drainage. The code provides comprehensive minimum regulations for plumbing facilities in terms of both performance and prescriptive objectives providing for the acceptance of new and innovative products, materials, and systems.

http://www.ebuildingcodes.com/products.asp?group_id=21


(ايهم) #2

USING BUILDING CODES

The following procedure outlines the steps for code analysis. These steps are
used in multiple codes such as the Uniform Building Code 1997 (developed
by ICBO) and California Building Code 2000. It applies to a majority of
situations that involve an analysis of code requirements for a specific use
and anticipated construction type (CBC, 2001).

1. Classify the building:

A. Occupancy: Determine the occupancy group according to the
intended uses of the whole building or the portion it most nearly
resembles. Calculate the gross floor area and the allowable occupant
load of the building.

B. Type of Construction: Determine the type of construction of the
building by the building materials used and the fire resistance of
various parts of the building.
94 Hassan M. Satti and Robert J. Krawczyk

C. Location on Property: Determine the location of the building on the
site and clearances to property lines and other surrounding buildings.
Determine the fire resistance of exterior walls and wall opening
requirements based on proximity to property lines.

D. Allowable Floor Area: Determine the allowable gross floor area of
the building. Verify the basic allowable floor area based on
occupancy group and type of construction. Compute the allowable
increases in floor area based on location on property and the
installation of approved automatic fire-sprinkler system. Determine
allowable floor area of multistory buildings.

E. Height and Number of Stories: Determine the height of the building
and the number of stories. Verify the maximum allowable height and
number of stories based on occupancy group and type of
construction. Determine the allowable height and story increase
based on the installation of an approved fire-sprinkler system.

[LEFT]2. Review the building for conformity with occupancy requirements.

  1. Review the building for conformity with the type of construction
    requirements.
  2. Review the building for conformity with exiting requirements[/left].

[LEFT]5. Review the building for other detailed code regulations.

  1. Review the building for conformity with structural engineering
    regulations and requirements for materials of construction[/left].

Although the steps mentioned above seem sequential, in practice it is
more interactive and requires back and forth process of review to achieve an
optimized compliant design solution (CBC, 2001).


(ايهم) #3

Occupancy Classification

Buildings, or portions of buildings, are classified by the activities for which they are used, termed Occupancy groups. These group classifications reflect the relative life-safety hazard associated with the activities and occupant characteristics. In general, buildings intended for larger numbers of occupants, for public use, and for inherently hazardous activities are afforded greater levels of protection than those planned for smaller groups, private uses, or nonhazardous activities. If the building contains multiple uses, determine the occupancy classification for each.

(The Architect’s Studio Companion: Rules of Thumb for preliminary Design, By Edward Allen & Joseph Iano, third edition, p.7. 2002 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. ISBN: 0-471-39235-9).

The occupancy classifications with slight differences from one building code to another.

A-1: A building or portion of a building having an assembly room with an occupant load of 1,000 or more and
a legitimate stage.

A-2: A building or portion of a building having an assembly room with an occupant load of less than 1,000 and
a legitimate stage.

A-2.1: A building or portion of a building having an assembly room with an occupant load of 300 or more without
a legitimate stage, including such buildings used for educational purposes and not classed as a Group
E or Group B Occupancies.

A-3: A building or portion of a building having an assembly room with an occupant load of less than 300 without
a legitimate stage, including such buildings used for educational purposes and not classed as a Group
E or Group B Occupancies.

A-4: Stadiums, reviewing stands and amusement park structures not included within other Group A
Occupancies.

B: A building or structure, or a portion thereof, used for office, professional or service-type transactions,
which are not classified as Group H occupancies. Such occupancies include storage of records and
accounts, and eating and drinking establishments with an occupant load of less than 50. Business
occupancies, such as, banks, medical offices, carwashes, etc.

E-1: Any building used for educational purposes through the 12th grade by 50 or more persons for more than
12 hours per week or four hours in any one day.

E-2: Any building used for educational purposes through the 12th grade by less than 50 persons for more than
12 hours per week or four hours in any one day.
EXCEPTION: A residence used as a home school for the children who normally reside at the residence.
Such residences shall remain classified as R-1 or R-3 Occupancies.

E-3: Any nonresidential building or portion thereof used for day-care purposes for more than 6
children/persons. Any residential building used for day-care purposes for more than 14 persons.

F-1: Moderate-hazard factory and industrial occupancies, including factory and industrial uses not classified
as F-2 Occupancies.

F-2: Low-hazard factory and industrial occupancies, including facilities producing noncombustible or
nonexplosive materials which during finishing, packing or processing, do not involve a significant fire
hazard.

H-1: Occupancies with a quantity of material in the building in excess of those listed in Table 3-D which
present a high explosion hazard.

H-2: Occupancies where combustible dust is manufactured, used or generated in such a manner that
concentrations and conditions create a fire or explosion potential; occupancies with a quantity of material
in the building in excess of those listed in Table 3-D, which present a moderate explosion hazard or a
hazard from accelerated burning.

H-3: Occupancies where flammable solids, other than combustible dust, are manufactured, used or
generated, including uses in which the quantity of material in the building in excess of those listed in Table
3-D and presents a high physical hazard.

H-4: Repair garages not classified as S-3 Occupancies.

H-5: Aircraft repair hangars not classified as S-5 Occupancies and heliports.

H-6: Semiconductor fabrication facilities and comparable research and development areas in which hazardous
production materials are used, and the aggregate quantity of materials are in excess of those listed in
Table 3-D or 3-E.

H-7: Occupancies having quantities of materials in excess of those listed in Table 3-E that are health hazards.


(ايهم) #4

H-8: Laboratories and similar areas used for scientific experimentation or research having quantities of
materials not in excess of those listed in Tables 3-D.1 and 3-I and not otherwise classified as Group B
Occupancies. Such laboratories may be classified as Group B Occupancies when the quantities of
materials are not in excess of those listed in Tables 3-D and 3-E. Laboratories having quantities of
materials in excess of those listed in Table 3-E and which are located below the fourth story may be
classified as H-7 Occupancy.

I-1.1: Nurseries for the full-time care of children under the age of six (each accommodating more than five
children).
Hospitals, sanitariums, nursing homes with nonambulatory patients where medical care is provided, or
homes with nonambulatory guests where medical care is provided, and similar buildings (each
accommodating more than five patients).

I-1.2: Health-care centers for ambulatory patients receiving outpatient medical care that may render the patient
incapable of unassisted self-preservation (each tenant space accommodating more than five such
patients).

I-2: Nursing homes for ambulatory patients, where medical care is provided, homes for ambulatory children
six years of age or over where medical care is provided, or homes with ambulatory guests where medical
care is provided, and similar buildings and honor farms and conservation camps housing inmates who
are not restrained (each accommodating more than five patients or children).

I-3: Mental hospitals, mental sanitariums, jails, prisons, reformatories and buildings where personal liberties
of inmates are similarly restrained.
M A building or structure, or a portion thereof, used for the display and sale of merchandise, and involving
stocks of goods, wares or merchandise, incidental to such purposes and accessible to the public.
Mercantile occupancies, such as, department stores, markets, wholesale and retail stores…etc.

R-1: Hotels, motels and apartment houses, congregate residences (each accommodating more than 10
persons).

R-2.1: Residentially-based, licensed facilities accommodating more than six nonambulatory clients. This division
may include ambulatory clients.

R-2.1.1: Residentially-based, licensed facilities accommodating six or less nonambulatory clients. This division
may include ambulatory clients.

R-2.2: Residentially-based, licensed facilities accommodating more than six ambulatory clients. This division
may include up to six nonambulatory clients.

R-2.2.1: Residentially-based, licensed facilities accommodating six or less ambulatory clients. This division may
include a maximum of two nonambulatory clients.

R-2.3: Residentially-based, licensed facilities providing hospice care throughout accommodating more than six
bedridden clients.

R-2.3.1: Residentially-based facilities providing hospice care throughout accommodating six or less bedridden
clients.

R-3: Dwellings, including lodging houses; and congregate residences (each accommodating 10 or fewer
persons) and large family day-care homes.

R-6.1: Residential Group Care Facilities which provide care and/or supervisory services for more than six
nonambulatory residents.
Residential Group Care Facilities are limited to halfway houses such as community correctional centers,
community correction reentry centers, community treatment programs, work furlough programs, and
alcoholism or drug abuse recovery or treatment facilities, which provide care and/or supervisory services.
Restraint shall not be practiced in these facilities.

R-6.2: Residential Group Care Facilities which provide care and/or supervisory services for more than six
ambulatory residents.

R-6.1.1: Residential Group Care Facilities which provide care and/or supervisory services for six or less
nonambulatory residents.

R-6.2.1: Residential Group Care Facilities which provide care and/or supervisory services for six or less
ambulatory residents.

S-1: Moderate hazard storage occupancies including buildings or portions of buildings used for storage of
combustible materials not classified as S-2 or Group H Occupancies

S-2: Low-hazard storage occupancies, including buildings or portions of buildings used for storage of
noncombustible materials.

S-3: Repair garages where work is limited to exchange of parts and maintenance requiring no open flame or
welding, motor vehicle fuel dispensing stations, and parking garages not classified as S-4 Occupancies
or Group U private garages.

S-4: Open parking garages.

S-5: Aircraft hangars where work is limited to exchange of parts and maintenance requiring no open flame and
welding, and helistops.

U-1: Private garages, carports, sheds and agricultural buildings.

U-2: Fences over 6 feet (1829 mm) high, tanks and towers.

http://www.ladbs.org/faq/info%20bulletins/general%20info/IB-P-GI%202002-019%20Occupancy-Groups.pdf


(السبع) #5

يا سلام عليك يا أيهم والله إشتغلت صح فيه ذا الموضوع قريت منه شوي بس ما كملته بالكامل بس تستحق على هالموضوع خمس نقاط وتشكر عليه …


(almohandes) #6

شكرا على موضوعك المتميز يا اخي العزيز (استمر على هذا التميز):slight_smile:
تحياتييييييي,


(ايهم) #7

شكرا الاخ: السبع والاخ: المهندس على الردود الطيبة والمشجعة وان شاء الله بتكون لي مواضيع جديدة. خلاص خلصت الصيفي فبيكون عندي وقت أكثر للمشاركة… وان شاء الله نشوف تفاعل أكثر ومشاركات أكثر من جميع الاعضاء لان المنتدى بدون مشاركات ما يسوى.


(السبع) #8

صحيح أحوي أيهم وأنا أتضايق شويه من فتور الشباب شوي أدري الصيفي تاعبنهم بس العجيب تحصل كثيرين online وما حد ينزل مواضيع جديدة أو شيء أو يشارك …
يلا شباب وبنوتات همة أكثر …
من أجل منتديات المهندس …


(ايهم) #9

عندي نفس الملاحظة… كثير من الاعضاء متواجدين على المنتدى بس ماشئ مشاركات منهم الا القليل القليل…المنتدى ما يسوى بدون مواضيع ومشاركات, كل حسب ميوله… والانسان لازم يخلد شئ في هالدنيا من ابداعه وانتاجه عشان الناس تتذكره ويشكروه على هالشئ… وبعدين المشاركات بتكون رصيد للشخص في المستقبل, واحتمال تفيده في الحصول على وظيفة أو أشياء ثانية وتنمي عنده ميزة الكتابة والتواصل مع الناس و ايصال أفكاره بطريقة مفهمومة للناس وهذه الميزة لازم تتوفر عند المهندس الناجح.