Ya'bad has been suffering from environmental pollution as a result of charcoal industry. This industry is located in the western part of the town at Zabda Street. Environmental impacts of charcoal occur at each step of its life-cycle, which includes feedstock supply, pyrolises of wood and charcoal usage.
The main objective of this project which is performed on the period of two semesters is to minimize air pollution occurs during charcoal production in Ya'bad by designing a kiln prototype to produce charcoal with at least same quality of charcoal produced by traditional method but with possibilities to mitigate air pollutants problem.
The project was commenced by collecting data about the charcoal production situation in Ya'bad including the method proceeded and the environmental impacts of charcoal production. In addition to that other charcoal production practices in other countries were studied to be aware of this industry. Then a prototype kiln was designed in order to study many parameters in charcoal production in order to obtain the best conditions required to produce charcoal and minimize the pollutants emitted during production particularly, nitrogen oxides, sulfur dioxide, carbon monoxide and carbon dioxide. A combustion analyzer model 300 device was used to measure the concentrations of mentioned components.
Carrying out this project, the following results were found:-
Ø Charcoal production in Ya'bad is an important industry sector there but it has a considerable negative effect on the environment.
Ø The main air pollutants emitted during production are green-house-gases, tars, volatile organic compounds and particulate matter.
Ø The designed prototype kiln was tested and some problems were found so attempts were done to find the appropriate design and to have the desired performance.
Ø Analysis of the produced charcoal from the designed prototype kiln was found to be of an acceptable quality. This includes:-
ü A moisture values range between 2-5%
ü Ash content was between 2-5%
ü Volatile matter content in the range of 12-21%
ü Fixed carbon 72-81%
ü Heating value 23000-31000 KJ/Kg
Ø For a feedback about the produced charcoal questionnaire was prepared and distributed. Consequently, People main feedback about charcoal produced from citrus wood was of a convenient quality in comparison to the one produced from olive wood which has some problems such as:-
§ fast quenching
§ in some occasions has bad smell, and
§ more ash content.
Ø Tar collecting technique using a tank containing water was tested and an amount of tar was gathered.
Ø Minimizing the pollutants produced from carbonization of wood was done using a tank containing NaOH solution of 0.1M resulted in a decrease in the emissions concentrations in the following percentage:
ü Nitrogen oxides 46.0%
ü Sulfur dioxide 22.9%
ü Carbon monoxide 9.6%
ü Carbon dioxide 13.5%