[CENTER]Electric arc Furnace (EAF)
The main function of EAF, is to melt the scrap & raw material and convert it to high quality liquid steel as fast as possible by using high-power electric arcs.
The EAF operates within one cycle called tap-to-tap cycle.
One complete cycle produce one “Heat”
The cycle is made up of the following operations:
* Furnace charging
* Furnace turn-around
Modern operations aim for a tap-to-tap time of less than 60 mins. Some twin shell furnace operations are achieving tap-to-tap times of 35 to 40 minutes.
Melting is accomplished by supplying energy to the furnace interior. This energy can be electrical or chemical.
* Electrical energy is supplied via the graphite electrodes and is usually the largest contributor in melting operations.
* Chemical energy is being supplied via several sources including oxy-fuel burners and oxygen lances. Oxy-fuel burners burn natural gas using oxygen or a blend of oxygen and air. Heat is transferred to the scrap by flame radiation and convection by the hot products of combustion. Heat is transferred within the scrap by conduction.
Electric Arc Furnace power is the food for a hungry furnace
Electrical arc Furnace power starts at the utility company’s generator which puts out 3 phase , 60 cycle A.C power & the power is stepped down by transformers till the furnace transformer
Electrical power is Voltage ( E or V) multiplied by current ( I )
P = V x I
Voltage expresses the difference in electrical pressure between the conductor in which current flowing and the ground, or, between two or more conductors.
This pressure differential is known as the electrical potential.
Voltage is a push from the pump
Voltage ( E ) in electrical system like a water in a piping system.
A pump creates pressure to force water through a pipe.
An electrical generator creates voltage to force electricity through conductors.
the electricity passes to the arc furnace through power lines, breakers, transformers, cables, bus bars and electrodes.
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